In a research work of this magnitude, there ought to be existing work in the form of literatures to assist the researcher. But unfortunately there are quite a few. However, this research work with the existing literature in this area of study will add to the existing work on the subject matter.
2.2 Child Abuse and its Causes in Nigeria
Different forms of child abuse have characterized the history of hitherto existing society. Viewed from the western matrix, child abuse extends to several maltreatment children; mostly with regards to functions relating to certain responsibilities as child labour either in the form of “framework” “street hawking”, which many children in African embark upon as an acquired work role in an extended family system. But however, this study basically is on child hawking, as it affect educational development of the child.
One aspect of child maltreatment which has attracted serious attention of researchers (Gill 2000 and Abbee, 2000) is physical abuse
It then follows that the whom issue of child hawking requires a thorough assessment for the purpose of justification of terms, C.P Ekpe and Bowls (2006) saw child hawking and neglect as acts consisting of commission or omission, which interfere with the chance to develop their normal potentials as human beings. He went further to itemized child hawking as that which implies physical or mental injury, negligent treatment or maltreatment.
In this case the child suffers from lack of attention by parent manifested by malnutrition and lack of stimulation, Chris postulated that any definition of child abuse should take cognizance of the form of abuse including physical assault, psychological or emotional and sexual abuse.
Ewuruigwe and Naidu (2008) have discovered that there is a direct relationship between child hawking and poverty. They found out that the need for survival often pushes some children to secure employment outside the home.
According to Naidu (2004) poverty and irregularity are the major causes of child hawking that of other factor of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependence with the economic system in which these factor operate, “Ewuruijwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking that all other factors of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependent with the economic system in which these factors operate.” Ewuruigwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking in a number of factors. In his words poverty, the interesting of global network capitalism, shifting family structure, the nature of the state and mode of production as well as religion.
Egbigbo (2002) also stated that in eastern and western parts of Nigeria children trade for their house madams and parents to help in the family economy. Some also earn their school fees by hawking those who attended afternoon schools hawks in the morning and those who attend morning school hawk in the afternoon.
On the cultural aspect of child abuse, Naidu and Obikeze (1986) stressed the role of culture in child upbringing Obikeze pointed out that the children are reared in Nigeria in such a way that they are made to practice or do domestic works that are commensurate with their age, soc and physical ability such activities serve to provide the child with accessory skills and training required for future life.
Vinolia and Fubara (1996) had it that: here in Nigeria our child rearing pattern has been affected by our culture/ethnic setting as well as our social class. Each social class tends to have its social values and expectation likewise the ethnic groups.
They further added that because children are seen as God sent, African parents give birth to too many children as to have many helpers.
Schilakrout (1998) in her stuck of Kano cultural practices stated that “while a clear relationship scale among the majority of family in the middle income range, many cultural factors intervenes which are independent of economic factors”.
More so, in a study carried out by prime people magazine (Jan 26th and Feb 1st 2003) almost half of the respondents 50% agreed the fact that female hawkers entice man with their mode of dressing when hawking.
And this they say sometimes, lead to the ungodly act of rape and early unwanted pregnancy among female hawkers.
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